Relative Pronouns 关系代词

Who’, ‘whom’, ‘whose’, ‘which’ and ‘that’ are Relative Pronouns.

Who’、 ‘whom’、 ‘whose’、 ‘which’ 与 ‘that’ 是关系代词

In a sentence, a relative pronoun is used to refer to the noun mentioned before it. It is usually used to add more information about the noun.

在一个句子里,关系代词是用来指之前所提到的名词。它通常用来添加更多关于名词的资料。

e.g. The man who won the game is my uncle.

例子: 赢得比赛的那个男人是我的舅父。

In the above sentence, the relative pronoun ‘who’ is used to refer to the noun (man) before it. After ‘who’, more information about the man is added, i.e., the man won the game.

在上面的句子里,关系代词 ‘who’ 是用来指示位于它之前的名词, ‘man’ (男人)。 关系代词 ‘who’ 之后,我们获知更多关于那位男人的资料,也就是:那男人赢得比赛。

A relative pronoun is also used to join two sentences together.

关系代词也用来把两个句子结合起来。

e.g.

例子

The girl lost her bicycle. 那个女孩失去了她的自行车。

She is my sister. 她是我的妹妹。

We can join the two sentences above together with the relative pronoun ‘who’.

我们能够用关系代词 ‘who’ 把以上的两个句子连合起来。

The girl who lost her bicycle is my sister.

失去自行车的那位个女孩是我的妹妹。

Who’, ‘whose’ and ‘whom’ are used to refer to people, while ‘which’ and ‘that’ are used to refer to animals and things.

Who’、 ‘whose’ 与 ‘whom’ 是用来描述人物,而 ‘which’ 与 ‘that’ 则是用来描述动物及物品。



Relative Pronoun ‘Who’ 关系代词 ‘Who’

In a sentence, the relative pronoun ‘who’ is used as the subject. It is usually placed before a verb.

在一个句子里,关系代词 ‘who’ 用作主语。它通常位于动词之前。

Examples:

例子:

This the lady who drives a red car to work.

这位女士就是驾驶一辆红色汽车去上班的那一位。

(In the above sentence, the relative pronoun ‘who’ is placed before the verb ‘drives’.)

(在上面的句子里,关系代词 ‘who’ 位于动词 ‘drive’ 之前。)


The doctor who treated me is a kind man.

治疗我的那位医生是个善良的男人。


I know the old man who lives in this house.

我认识住在这所房子里的那位老人。


The waitress who served me is your aunt.

为我服务的那位女侍者是你的舅母。


The man who broke into a house was sent to prison.

强行闯入房子的那个男人被关押了。







Relative Pronoun ‘Whose’ 关系代词 ‘Whose’

In a sentence, the relative pronoun ‘whose’ is used as a possessive. It is usually placed before a noun.

在一个句子里,关系代词 ‘whose’ 用作所有格代词。它通常位于名词之前。

Examples:

例子:

The boy whose bicycle was stolen is the top student in his class.

自行车被偷的那个男孩是他的班里最优秀的学生。

(In the above sentence, the relative pronoun ‘whose’ is placed before the noun ‘bicycle’.)

(在上面的句子里,关系代词 ‘whose’ 位于名词 ‘bicycle’ 之前。)


The girl whose parents died is here to see you.

家长去世了的那位女孩到这里来见你。


The man whose cat scratched me is out of town.

他的猫抓伤我的那个男人在镇外。


The woman whose house is large has three children.

拥有一所大房子的那位妇女有三个儿女。


The youth whose scooter is stolen is a friend of mine.

小型摩托车被偷的那个年轻男子是我的朋友。



Relative Pronoun ‘Whom’ 关系代词 ‘Whom’

In a sentence, the relative pronoun ‘whom’ is always used as an object. It is usually placed before a pronoun, a proper noun (a person’s name) or a noun referring to people or a person.

在一个句子里,关系代词 ‘whom’ 总是用作宾语。它通常位于代名词、专有名词(一个人的名字)或指人的名词之前。

Examples:

例子:

The old man, whom Xiaoling met yesterday, is your grandfather.

小菱昨天所遇到的那位老人是你的祖父。

(In the above sentence, the relative pronoun ‘whom’ is placed before the proper noun ‘Xiaoling’.)

(在上面的句子里,关系代词 ‘whom’ 位于专有名词 ‘Xiaoling’ 之前。)


Mr. Li, whom you met at the party, has just dropped by.

你在宴会遇见的那位李先生刚刚路过时顺便来看看你。


He is the man whom I helped yesterday.

他就是昨天我帮助的那位男子。


The customer whom Zhenhao served just now is my neighbor.

振浩刚刚服务的那位顾客是我的邻居。


The teenager whom Caiyun shook hands with is an actor.

彩云和他握手的那位少年是一位演员。



Relative Pronouns ‘Which’ & ‘That’ 关系代词 ‘which’ 与 ‘that’

The relative pronouns ‘which’ and ‘that’ can be used as either the subject or the object of a sentence.

在一个句子里,关系代词 ‘which’ 与 ‘that’ 可用作主语或宾语。


‘Which’ & ‘that’ as the subject

‘Which’ 与 ‘that’ 用作主语

Examples:

例子:

This is the dog which bit a child.

这就是咬了一个小孩的那只狗。

(In the above sentence, the relative pronoun ‘which’ is used as a subject, as it refers to the doer of an action, the dog.)

(在上面的句子里,关系代名词 ‘which’ 用作主语, 因为它是指动作的实行者,也就是那只狗。)


The cat that caught a mouse is sleeping now.

捉了一只老鼠的猫现在正在睡觉。


That is the herd of elephants which destroyed the farmer’s crops.

那是破坏了农夫的农作物的象群。


The tiger that attacked a human has been shot.

攻击了人的那只老虎已被枪杀。



‘Which’ & ‘That’ as the object

‘Which’ 与 ‘that’ 用作宾语

Examples:

例子:

The vase that he broke was expensive.

他打破的那个花瓶真昂贵。

(In the above sentence, the relative pronoun ‘that’ is used as an object, as it refers to the thing that is affected by the action of the verb, i.e., the vase.)

(在上面的句子里,关系代名词 ‘that’ 用作宾语, 因为它是指受了某动作的影响的物件,也就是花瓶。)


The table which she cleaned a moment ago is dirty again.

她刚才抹干净的桌子又骯脏了。


The bubbles that he blew burst in a while.

他吹的泡泡一会儿就破灭了。


These are the books which I borrowed from the library.

这些书是我从图书馆借的。



Exercises 习题

A. Join the following pairs of sentences together using the relative pronoun ‘who’.

试用关系代词 ‘who’ 把以下一对对的句子连合起来。

1. She has an uncle. He works in the hospital.

2. Walter must call her sister. She lives in Seoul.

3. That is the actress. She has just won an award.

4. The girl is good in English. She lives next door to me.

5. My sister will come and see me. She is studying in a university.

6. The teenager was awarded. He saved a drowning girl.

7. The man is my father’s friend. He patted you on the back.

8. My neighbor sings well. She wants to be a professional singer.

9. This is the youth. He is studying law.

10. Is this the girl? She was discharged from the hospital.


B. Join the following pairs of sentences together using the relative pronoun ‘whose’.

试用关系代词 ‘whose’ 把以下一对对的句子连合起来。

1. This is the girl. Her mother is a nurse.

2. This is the boy. His father was injured in a car accident.

3. That is the man. His daughter is the model student of the year.

4. That is the woman. Her handbag was snatched.

5. We talked to the lady. Her child is missing.

6. Do you know the man? His bungalow is on top of a hill.

7. Mark is absent today. His mother passed away.

8. Candy is angry. Her gold necklace was stolen.

9. Mr. Newton is taking a bus to work. His car broke down.

10. Sam has lodged a police report. His house was robbed.


C. Join the following pairs of sentences together using the relative pronoun ‘whom’. Leave out the words in bold.

试用关系代词 ‘whom’ 把以下一对对的句子连合起来。 在答案里省去黑体字。

1. This is my aunt. I told you about her.

2. The woman is my mother. I saw her just now.

3. These are the men. My father employs them.

4. Are you the patient? The doctor treated you.

5. She is the girl. I helped her this morning.

6. That is the lady. I introduced you to her.

7. The man is a teacher. I visited him last week.

8. The doctor is out of town. I am looking for him.

9. The man is standing over there. You want to see him.

10. The boy has left. I borrowed this pen from him.


D. Join the following pairs of sentences together using the relative pronoun ‘which’ or 'that'. Leave out the words in bold.

试用关系代词 ‘which’ 或 'that' 把以下一对对的句子连合起来。 在答案里省去黑体字。

1. This is the tiger. It attacked the zookeeper.

2. I read a science fiction. It was very exciting.

3. Where is the newspaper? I bought it this morning.

4. This is the car. My father is interested to buy it.

5. My mother is cooking the fish. I caught them from the river.

6. The vegetables have rotted. They are not in the refrigerator.

7. You can take this short cut. It leads to the library.

8. Rebecca needs to water the plants. They have not been watered for a couple of days.

9. They cannot swim across the river. It is too wide.

10. Houseflies are dirty insects. They spread diseases.


E. Fill in the blanks with ‘who’, ‘whom’, ‘whose’ or ‘which’.

试用 ‘who’、 ‘whom’、 ‘whose’ 或 ‘which’ 来填充空格。

1. She is the lady ____________ I gave the present to.

2. The person ____________ lent me a helping hand yesterday is your brother.

3. The stewardess ____________ served me is very polite.

4. This is the boy ____________ father works as an oculist.

5. The panda is a mammal ____________ lives in China.

6. They are the only people ____________ we can ask for help.

7. The girl ____________ Heidi saw at the party is my cousin.

8. I saw a beggar ____________ leg was swollen last week.

9. The child ____________ parents died in a plane crash now lives in an orphanage.

10. Mrs. Larry’ pet dog, ____________ was reported missing last month, has been found.


F. Choose the right answers.

选择对的答案。

1. The movie ( that, who ) I saw last week is scary.

2. Mr. Anderson is the teacher ( who, whom ) taught us mathematics last year.

3. That is the student ( whose, whom ) handwriting is neat.

4. Is this the mechanic ( whose, who ) repaired your car?

5. The cell phone ( which, whom) I gave Barbra is imported from Europe.

6. The reporters interviewed the man ( whose, who ) donated generously to the fire victims.

7. The rose plant ( whom, that ) you gave me last month has bloomed.

8. The boy ( who, whom ) I visited last week has died of leukemia.

9. Are you going to help the man ( who, whose ) house was burnt to ashes?

10. The lady ( whose, whom ) you hugged is the headmistress of this school.


Answers 答案

A.

1. She has an uncle who works in the hospital.

2. Walter must call her sister who lives in Seoul.

3. That is the actress who has just won an award.

4. The girl who lives next door to me is good in English.

5. My sister who is studying in a university will come and see me.

6. The teenager who saved a drowning girl was awarded.

7. The man who patted you on the back is my father’s friend.

8. My neighbor who wants to be a professional singer sings well.

9. This the youth who is studying law.

10. Is this the girl who was discharged from the hospital?


B.

1. This is the girl whose mother is a nurse.

2. This is the boy whose father was injured in a car accident.

3. That is the man whose daughter is the model student of the year.

4. That is the woman whose handbag was snatched.

5. We talked to the lady whose child is missing.

6. Do you know the man whose bungalow is on top of a hill?

7. Mark, whose mother passed away, is absent today.

8. Candy, whose gold necklace was stolen, is angry.

9. Mr. Newton, whose car broke down, is taking a bus to work.

10. Sam, whose house was robbed, has lodged a police report.


C.

1. This is my aunt whom I told you about.

2. The woman whom I saw just now is my mother.

3. These are the men whom my father employs.

4. Are you the patient whom the doctor treated?

5. She is the girl whom I helped this morning.

6. That is the lady whom I introduced you to.

7. The man whom I visited last week is a teacher.

8. The doctor whom I am looking for is out of town.

9. That man whom you want to see is standing over there.

10. The boy whom I borrowed this pen from has left.


D.

1. This is the tiger which attacked the zookeeper. /

This is the tiger that attacked the zookeeper.

2. I read a science fiction which was very exciting. /

I read a science fiction that was very exciting.

3. Where is the newspaper which I bought this morning? /

Where is the newspaper that I bought this morning?

4. This is the car which my father is interested to buy. /

This is the car that my father is interested to buy.

5. My mother is cooking the fish which I caught from the river. /

My mother is cooking the fish that I caught from the river.

6. The vegetables which are not in the refrigerator have rotted. /

The vegetables that are not in the refrigerator have rotted.

7. You can take this short cut which leads to the library. /

You can take this short cut that leads to the library.

8. Rebecca needs to water the plants which have not been watered for a couple of days. /

Rebecca needs to water the plants that have not been watered for a couple of days.

9. They cannot swim across the river which is too wide. /

They cannot swim across the river that is too wide.

10. Houseflies are dirty insects which spread diseases. /

Houseflies are dirty insects that spread diseases.

E.

1. whom

2. who

3. who

4. whose

5. which

6. whom

7. whom

8. whose

9. whose

10. which


F.

1. that

2. who

3. whose

4. who

5. which

6. who

7. that

8. whom

9. whose

10. whom