Singular and Plural Nouns 单数及复数名词

Singular Nouns 单数名词

A Singular Noun refers to one person, animal, thing or place.

单数名词 是指一个人,一只动物,一件物品或一个地方。

Examples:

例子:

Person 人 Animal 动物 Thing 物品 Place 地方
boy 男孩 cat 猫 cup 杯子 park 公园
girl 女孩 dog 狗 spoon 汤匙 harbor 港口
baby 婴孩 puppy 小狗 television 电视机 farm 农场
child 小孩 kitten 小猫 bicycle 自行车 beach 海滩
man 男人 horse 马 sofa 沙发 playground 游乐场
woman 妇女 donkey 驴子 bus 公车 zoo 动物园
gentleman 男士 chicken 鸡 house 房子 garden 花园
lady 女士 duck 鸭 watch 手表 market 市场
teacher 教师 goose 鹅 vase 花瓶 village 乡村

Plural Nouns 复数名词

A Plural Noun refers to more than one person, animal, thing or place.

复数名词是指超过一个人,一只动物,一件物品或一个地方。

Examples:

例子:

Person 人 Animal 动物 Thing 物品 Place 地方
boys cats cups parks
girls dogs spoons harbors
babys puppys televisions farms
children kittens bicycles beaches
men horses sofas playgrounds
women donkeys buses zoos
gentlemen chickens houses gardens
ladies ducks watches markets
teachers geese vases harbors

Plural Nouns are formed in many ways. Listed below are some of the more common ways:

复数名词形成的方式有很多。下列是比较常见的方式:

1) By adding ‘s’. 加上 ‘s’ 。

Examples:

例子:

chair - chairs 椅子

waiter – waiters 侍者

towel – towels 毛巾

pillow - pillows 枕头

pen – pens 钢笔

shoe – shoes

truck – trucks 卡车

book – books

sandal – sandals 凉鞋

helicopter – helicopters 直升机

telephone – telephones 电话

zebra – zebras 斑马




2) For nouns ending in the letters ‘x’, ‘ch’, ‘s’, ‘sh’ and ‘o’, add ‘es’.

在以字母 ‘x’、 ‘ch’、 ‘s’、‘sh’ 及 ‘o’ 结尾的名词末端加上 ‘es’.

Examples:

例子:

torch – torches 火炬

bench – benches 长凳

leech – leeches 水蛭

ditch – ditches

cockroach – cockroaches 蟑螂

beach – beaches 海滩

coach – coaches 教练

church – churches 教堂

inch – inches 英寸

dress – dresses 连衣裙

grass – grasses

address - addresses 地址

circus - circuses 马戏团

cross – crosses 十字架

buffalo – buffaloes 水牛

halo - haloes 光环

mosquito – mosquitoes 蚊子

eyelash – eyelashes 睫毛

wish – wishes 愿望

fax – faxes 传真机

hoax – hoaxes 骗局


3) For some nouns ending in the letter ‘o’, add ‘s’.

在有些以字母 ‘o’ 结尾的名词末端加上 ‘s’.

Examples:

例子:

photo – photos 照片

piano – pianos 钢琴

igloo – igloos 冰屋

cockatoo – cockatoos 凤头鹦鹉

kangaroo – kangaroos 袋鼠

tattoo - tattoos 文身花纹

studio - studios 录音室

video - videos 录影

zoo - zoos 动物园

studio - studios 录音室


4) For nouns ending in ‘y’ with a consonant before it, replace ‘y’ with ‘ies’ (in many cases).

以字母 ‘y’ 结尾而 ‘y’ 之前有个辅音字母的名词,以 ‘ies’ 代替 ‘y’(有很多这一类的实例)。

Examples:

例子:

lady – ladies 女士

city – cities 城市

battery – batteries 电池

cherry – cherries 樱桃

daddy – daddies 爸爸

dairy – dairies 牛奶场

kitty – kitties 小猫

pony – ponies 小型马

reply – replies 回复

copy – copies 复制品

daisy – daisies 雏菊花

story – stories 故事


5) For nouns ending in ‘y’ with a vowel before it, add ‘s’ (in most cases).

以字母 ‘y’ 结尾而 ‘y’ 之前有个元音字母的名词加 ‘s’ (大多数)。

Examples:

例子:

boy – boys 男孩

bay – bays 海湾

essay – essays 文章

toy – toys 玩具

valley – valleys 山谷

ray – rays 光线

chimney – chimneys 烟囱

donkey – donkeys 驴子

storey – storeys 楼层

turkey – turkeys 火鸡

play – plays 剧本

tray - trays 托盘


6) By replacing ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with ‘ves’ (in some cases).

以 ‘ves’ 代替 ‘f’ 或 ‘fe’ (对于一些名词)。

Examples:

例子:

calf – calves 小牛

knife – knives 小刀

leaf – leaves 叶子

elf – elves 小妖精

scarf - scarves 围巾

thief – thieves

sheaf – sheaves 一捆(收割的榖物)

wife – wives 妻子

life – lives 生命

wolf – wolves


7) By adding ‘s’ to nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ (in some cases).

以 ‘f’ 或 ‘fe’ 结尾的名词加 ‘s’ (对于一些名词)。

Examples:

例子:

cafe – cafes 咖啡馆

giraffe – giraffes 长颈鹿

gulf – gulfs 海湾

sheriff – sheriffs 城镇治安官

roof – roofs 屋顶

cliff – cliffs 悬崖

safe – safes 保险箱

hoof – hoofs (牛等动物的)蹄

chief – chiefs 首领

proof – proofs 证据


8) By changing the vowels inside.

改变名词里的元音字母。

Examples:

例子:

foot - feet 脚

man - men 男人

woman - women 妇女

louse - lice 虱子

goose - geese 鹅

mouse - mice 老鼠

tooth - teeth 牙齿

fireman - firemen 消防队员


9) The plural of some nouns are formed irregularly.

有些复数名词的形成方式不规则。

Examples:

例子:

child - children 儿童

larva - larvae 幼虫

radius - radii 半径

ox - oxen 公牛

cactus - cacti 仙人掌

bacterium - bacteria 细菌

fungus - fungi 霉菌


10) Some nouns ending in ‘s’ are only used in the plural.

有些以 ‘s’ 结尾的名词只有复数的形式。

Examples:

例子:

shorts (短裤)、 binoculars (双筒望远镜)、 scissors (剪刀)、 trousers (裤子)、 pants (裤子)、 contents (of a book) (书的目录)、 billiards (台球)、 pincers (钳子)、 forceps (镊子)、 arms (weapons) (武器)、 tongs (夹具)、 pyjamas (一套睡衣裤)、 mathematics (数学)、 clothes (衣服)、 shears (大剪刀)、 mumps (腮腺炎)、 physics (物理学)、 oats (燕麦)、 goods (商品)、 glasses (for eyes) (眼镜)等。


11) Most uncountable nouns are only used in the singular.

大多数的不可数名词只有单数的形式。

Examples:

例子:

water (水)、 silver (银)、 sand (沙)、 wheat (小麦)、 tea (茶)、 flour (面粉)、 cotton (棉花)、 gold (金)、 milk (奶)、 corn (玉米)、 coffee (咖啡)、 salt (盐)、 powder (粉末)、 mischief (恶作剧)等。


12) The singular and plural of some nouns are the same.

有些名词的单数形式与复数形式一样。

Examples:

例子:

deer - deer 鹿

sheep - sheep 绵羊

salmon - salmon 大麻哈鱼

cod - cod 鳕鱼

moose - moose 麋鹿

trout - trout 鲑鳟鱼

pike - pike 梭子鱼


Exercises 习题

A. Give the plural of the following singular nouns.

试写出以下单数名词的复数式。

1. table – ____________

2. church – ____________

3. zoo – ____________

4. story – ____________

5. play – ____________

6. knife – ____________

7. wolf – ____________

8. chief – ____________

9. mouse – ____________

10. fungus – ____________

11. sandal – ____________

12. hoax – ____________

13. photo – ____________

14. battery – ____________

15. life – ____________

16. sheriff – ____________

17. proof – ____________

18. larva – ____________

19. tooth – ____________

20. ox – ____________


B. Give the singular of the following plural nouns.

试写出以下复数名词的单数式。

1. waiters – ____________

2. crosses – ____________

3. pianos – ____________

4. daddies – ____________

5. essays – ____________

6. scarves – ____________

7. hoofs – ____________

8. geese – ____________

9. children – ____________

10. cacti – ____________

11. helicopters – ____________

12. mosquitoes – ____________

13. cockatoos – ____________

14. ponies – ____________

15. chimneys – ____________

16. thieves – ____________

17. giraffes – ____________

18. lice – ____________

19. bacterium – ____________

20. feet – ____________


C. Choose the correct answers.

选择对的答案。

1. Mr. Smith stayed in a hotel for 3 ( day, days ).

2. A hunter shot three ( deer, deers ) last week.

3. Two policemen caught a ( burglar, burglars ) last night.

4. I brush my ( tooth, teeth ) twice a day.

5. A few ( children, child ) are building a sandcastle on the beach.

6. Would you mind lending me a pair of ( scissor, scissors )?

7. The twin ( baby, babies ) are really cute.

8. She plucked a few ripe ( mangoes, mango ) from a mango tree.

9. The shepherd owns more than 2000 ( sheep, sheeps ) on his farm.

10. A pack of wolves is chasing after a ( foxes, fox ).


D. Rewrite these sentences changing the nouns in italics into plural.

重写以下的文句子,并把用斜体显示的名词改为复数式。

1. My sister found the necklace.

2. The policeman arrested the robber.

3. The boy played with a toy robot yesterday.

4. I caught the mouse with a mousetrap.

5. My uncle hung the picture on the wall.

6. I hurt my hand and foot yesterday.

7. The workman repaired the road.

8. The child played at the playground last evening.

9. The lady alighted from the bus.

10. The milkmaid milked the cow.


Answers 答案

A.

1.tables 2.churches 3.zoos 4.stories 5.plays 6.knives 7.wolves 8.chiefs 9.mice 10.fungi 11.sandals 12.hoaxes 13.photos 14.batteries 15.lives 16.sheriffs 17.proofs 18.larvae 19.teeth 20.oxen

B.

1.waiter 2.cross 3.piano 4.daddy 5.essay 6.scarf 7.hoof 8.goose 9.child 10.cactus 11.helicopter 12.mosquito 13.cockatoo 14.pony 15.chimney 16.thief 17.giraffe 18.louse 19.bacteria 20.foot

C.

1.days 2.deer 3.burglar 4.teeth 5.children 6.scissors 7.babies 8.mangoes 9.sheep 10.fox

D.

1. My sisters found the necklaces.

2. The policemen arrested the robbers.

3. The boys played with toy robots yesterday.

4. I caught the mice with mousetraps.

5. My uncles hung the pictures on the wall.

6. I hurt my hands and feet yesterday.

7. The workmen repaired the roads.

8. The children played at the playgrounds last evening.

9. The ladies alighted from the buses.

10. The milkmaids milked the cows.